Sunday, November 11, 2018

Plant Id Using Smartphones and Internet

This buttonbush is unique enough to be
identified by apps; others are not so easy
It may be a plant whose label you lost or something that just popped up in the yard, but the mystery is real and you want to figure out what it is.  You take a picture and email it to a few friends but they don’t know it either.

Someone suggests a smartphone app or a Facebook plant group and off you go. Your success depends on a number of factors, and I’d like to offer some thoughts on getting the most from your efforts.

  1. Smartphone apps (software): these tools are getting better but they are only as good as their data, which could be incomplete (so your picture is being compared against an incomplete set of possibilities). My suggestion is to try it out on a plant or two that you already know and see how it does.
Pro: Their guesses might point you in the right direction even if they didn’t give you the final answer.
Con: You should verify their answer against other sources, taking into account the appropriate range for the plant they are suggesting (one source guessed a plant that wasn’t even in the US).

  1. Internet groups (real people on Facebook and websites like Houzz and others): these groups can be friendly and helpful, prodding you for more information to help narrow down the choices.
Pro: Their queries for more information (are there hairs on the leaves, cut open the fruit to see how many seeds) can help you learn more about what to look for when identifying plants.
Con: Not every person who answers is actually knowledgeable,  unfortunately, so take every answer as a suggestion that you can use to look up comparisons.

  1. Search engines (Google, Bing, Duck Duck Go): I think that effective searching is almost an art, but with practice you can improve on your results. I am really only familiar with Google, but I make use of both the regular search and the image searching function. Here is a page that I find very helpful with identifying native plants in Georgia: Name That Plant.
Pro: There is a lot of data out there and, like using the other two, your search might give you more clues to follow even if it doesn’t give you the perfect answer.
Con: You are really on your own with interpreting the results, but that’s not as bad as it sounds. A word of caution using the image search – sometimes a picture is not the plant that you searched for, but it comes up because your plant might be mentioned in the description or some accompanying text.

Example of using iNaturalist with
Virginia creeper photo
Whatever help you use, always double check, compare to the appropriate range for where you found your plant (use USDA range maps), and compare to other pictures in books or on the Internet. [Note: If you don't like the app after you've tried it, consider deleting it from your device so that you don't use it in the future, especially if it was wrong or misleading.]

Bottom line is get out there, try things, learn from your efforts, and keep going. Being curious about identifying things was exactly what got me started. Tools are great as long as you understand how to get the best out of them and when to seek further help.

Here are just a few of the available plant id apps for smartphones (apps are free to download unless otherwise noted). Some apps note that certain OS levels are required or needed for best experience. All are available for iOS, most are also available for Android:

iNaturalist - not technically listed in the App store for “plant identification” but it’s a good tool. Use “observe” function and then choose “what did you see” for suggestions. Developed in the US.

PlantSnap - $.99 at App store, this one seems to have the most ratings.  The app says it uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to make the matches (probably not uncommon approach). Developed in the US.

Leafsnap - one of the earliest apps but now poorly rated on App Store. Uses recognition software. Developed in the US.

PictureThis  - mixed reviews, the app says it uses artificial intelligence to make the matches. Developed in China.

Garden Answers - One review says that you can pay a small fee to have an expert review your picture; not sure if that applies in all cases. One review definitely sounded fake. Owned by a US company,  but it is not clear where it was developed.

An example of a plant group on Facebook; look for local groups too like
Native Plant Groups and state Master Gardeners. The first answer is not always right!

Sunday, November 4, 2018

Flowering Dogwood – Iconic Southern Beauty

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) has long been one of the most beautiful and iconic symbols of the southern United States. Perhaps I think that because I grew up in Virginia where it is the state flower (it is also the state flower of North Carolina and the state tree for Missouri). The beautiful floral display of flowering dogwood graced many a home décor item, from tea towels and throw pillows to china and table accessories. The tree itself was in our yards, where its blocky bark and red fall fruits were just as familiar as the flowers.

Over the years I’ve come to appreciate this tree for its many qualities to humans and wildlife alike. In this fall season, two of those qualities are front and center: excellent fall color and fruit for wildlife. Throughout the year, it is a nice medium-sized tree, perfect for smaller lots (or plant a bunch if you have more room).

Flowering dogwood fall color and fruits

Where you plant this tree affects its performance. It needs enough sun to set sufficient flowers and fruit, yet it needs enough shade to achieve the elegant layered branch structure and to avoid crispy leaves. I think it is perfect for areas with morning sun and afternoon shade.  Allow room for it to gracefully spread 20-30 feet wide and tall over about 30 years. The white “petals” are really modified bracts; the flowers are small yellow flowers in the very center.

A mature flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) has a beautiful shape

I’d like to offer a few thoughts about a health problem that has been with us since 1987: dogwood anthracnose, a fungal disease that has spread into the region (first detected in the south in 1987 after initial detection in the US in 1978). First, choose quality trees and I recommend getting them from a nursery (rather than transplanting from the wild). Second, site the tree appropriately and protect it from the stress of dry conditions (e.g., water as needed, mulch appropriately). If you notice problems, consider applying a fungicide. I found two good resources from the Forest Service and from the Connecticut AES with helpful pictures for diagnosis and care.

Flowering dogwood is native throughout the Eastern US, from the deep south all the way to Canada. It is a member of the dogwood family (Cornaceae) which also includes black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), another native tree with good fall color and fruit for wildlife. It is related to several other dogwoods that are more shrub-like (read my earlier post about those dogwoods here).

An unusually red one from 2012

Seeing the fall color now is a good time to notice how beautiful this native tree can be. If you have fond memories like I do, you can now appreciate it even more for its other qualities.

Sunday, October 28, 2018

Muhly Madness

Some native plants get all the love. Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) is a rock star in the garden world, and nurseries have developed all sorts of colored cultivars from it. Oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) is a much-appreciated native shrub that is popping up in all kinds of designed landscapes. In the world of ornamental grasses, pink muhly grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris) is getting a lot of attention these days.

Muhly grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris) is peak form

Also called hair-awn muhly or pink hairgrass, this southeastern native grass is found in both the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain regions but in different environments. According to the Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (May 2015), in the Piedmont it is found “primarily in clayey or thin rocky soils (especially in areas which formerly burned and were prairie-like) and in open woodlands.” In the Coastal Plain, the habitat description is “in savannas, dry woodlands, and coastal grasslands (where sometimes in close proximity with M. sericea), in the Mountains around calcareous rock outcrops.”

In researching this grass, I talked with Elaine Nash, a longtime friend and member of the Georgia Botanical Society and a Georgia expert on native grasses. She feels that a lot of what is being sold as Muhlenbergia capillaris is actually Muhlenbergia sericea (syn. M. filipes) which is sometimes called purple muhly grass. This species has been used for many years for basket weaving in coastal areas where it is known as sweetgrass. According to the same Flora noted above, this species is found in “maritime dry grasslands, maritime wet grasslands, interdune swales, low dunes, sometimes edges of freshwater or brackish marshes, apparently limited to the barrier islands (sometimes in close proximity with M. capillaris), sometimes locally abundant.”

Whatever is being sold, now is the time to notice it in landscapes as its tall spires of pale to deep pink inflorescences wave in the breeze. I’m seeing it in new landscapes, such as completely new construction areas like new subdivisions where it is planted in the main entrance or in the landscaping of the new homes. Many of these new areas lack mature trees and so have bright, sunny areas that are perfect for ornamental grasses. A large sweep of this grass makes a bold statement when it blooms in October, just as flowering perennials might be diminishing.

Muhly grass with non-native grasses in the background

I am also seeing it in road medians and interchange landscaping (two areas where it is hard to safely take a good photo).  In John’s Creek, there is a fabulous median strip near Sargent Rd that has muhly grass, beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), and dwarf wax myrtle (Morella cerifera) mixed with some non-native landscape plants. On GA 400, exit 6 near Dunwoody/Sandy Springs was recently landscaped with a lot of muhly grass.

A creamy-colored cultivar by the name of ‘White Cloud’ is also starting to get more use. I think it lacks the impact of the pink flowering one, but perhaps some people don’t like as much pink.

This property has huge sweeps on both sides of the driveway, several rows deep

You can buy muhly grass in stores and online nurseries and even places like Amazon and Etsy (I do like local native plant nurseries when possible). It does best in landscapes where it can get full sun and good drainage. In the spring the old foliage can be clipped. In natural areas, the occasional use of fire probably benefits it, but residential usage should probably stick to traditional pruning for good health.

Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi)

I'd like to point out a smaller but perhaps more widespread perennial relative known as nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi). This native grass grows up to 18 inches, but sprawls on the ground later in the year where it might root from the nodes that touch the soil.

When it showed up in my yard, I though it was Bermuda grass. A closer inspection reveals that it has no runners like Bermuda grass and the inflorescence is different as well. Here is a picture from my yard (this is a small one, only 10 inches).

Muhly grass is but one of our southeastern native grasses being sold for landscape use these days. Schizachyrium scoparium 'The Blues' is getting a lot of attention and there are other choices. If you are looking for a larger grass, look to switchgrass and the cultivars of Panicum virgatum.

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Just Don’t Do It

There comes a time when one might realize that a plant has outgrown the space in which a human planted it. The human has several choices to rectify his/her mistake: prune the plant or remove it. It seems that not enough people consider the second option.

Behold the latest pruning catastrophe in my area: a long, double row of ‘Bradford’ pear trees that have been hacked to deal with their overgrown size. I have seen this group of trees many times and they were absolutely overcrowded. However, I think the better approach would have been to remove every other tree (note: the best approach would have been to remove every one of these useless pest trees).

There are at least two other properties within a 5-mile radius that have treated their pear trees in the same fashion over the last 10 or years (and they look horrible during the 4-5 months when they don't have leaves). I wonder if they used the same tree service (Would some tree services actually refuse to do this? I hope so.). I don’t believe that this treatment fits the definition of pollarding which implies that regular pollarding maintenance will be followed.

Please take this as a reminder to research the growth of your plant before you plant it. The internet is the perfect tool to find the mature width and height of any commonly grown plant.

And if you should find that your plant has outgrown its space, please consider a more appropriate method of pruning or removal.

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Fueling the Migration

The migration story of the monarch butterfly is one that seems to resonate with a lot of people. The story of plucky insects making their way from Mexico to Canada and back again is inspiring, all along the way depending on the availability of a native plant called milkweed (Asclepias sp.) to make the next generation.

Monarch populations have sharply declined in the last decade due to lack of milkweed and gardeners all over have responded by planting more milkweed to help them.

Milkweed is only part of the story. Last week I wrote about the native plants that we might choose to put in our gardens for fall residents and especially migrating monarch butterflies. They are the nectar plants. These plants provide the fuel that adult butterflies need.

2018 Migration Photo from Journey North

Yet, as hard as we try, our gardens can’t do it alone. I know what most residential gardens look like by now, and there are not a lot of flowers left. The reported migration numbers show a lot of butterflies still north of us. What are they going to eat? The answer lies in the flowers of the goldenrod (Solidago) and aster (Symphyotrichum) plants that line our roadsides, fill up vacant fields, and populate the spaces beneath our power lines.

Late blooming field of goldenrod (Solidago altissima)

These are the messy, tangled places that some people disparage. They are lifesavers to these butterflies. Roadside populations can outnumber what we do in our gardens. I look at the asters on the side of the road, in ditches and messy places, and cheer: “Go, tiny white asters, go!” I see late blooming fields of goldenrod and silently thank the landowner who mowed it mid-summer, producing this late flush of fresh flowers just in time.

How can we help keep these roadsides going? Knowledge is the key, whether you have it or you share it:

  • If you are the owner of places like these, don’t mow them until the flowers are done (or better, wait until just before new growth starts in the spring so that the flower seeds can feed winter birds).  Resist the urge to ‘tidy up’ for human aesthetics. Want to tell people it's deliberately left unmowed? Post a pollinator habitat sign.
  • All of us can educate others on the importance of these late flowers. Let your city/county/state road departments know that these areas are important. They can mow a ‘safety strip’ close to the road and leave large areas untouched (and that could save them money!) until spring. Pollinator health can be a part of their community goals. This communication from the Federal Highway Administration written in 2017 might be a good start to encouraging them to understand that managing roadsides can be “a significant conservation opportunity.”
  • Utility companies are responsible for large areas of vegetation in and around power lines. They often contract out for vegetation control but they can dictate the schedules of the work, ask for cutting over spraying (cutting allows perennials like goldenrods and asters to regrow in the same year), and communicating in general that they are trying to support pollinator health in their management practices.

Mow strip (Photo: Jennifer Hopwood, Xerces Society)

Support our roadsides and fall-flowering areas of wild native vegetation. Recognize that there are insects that depend on them (and actually birds too). Just like planting milkweed in our gardens, our support of these places is part of what we can do as humans to help restore some of the balance disrupted by our own buildings and infrastructure.

Sunday, October 7, 2018

Fall Nectar Plants for Monarch Butterflies in North Georgia

I love having flowers any time of year but fall flowers have a purpose as insects fuel up for a variety of reasons: some of them to create the next generation now while others prepare for migration. I won’t be filling my garden with double-flowered mums; I’ve got to choose the right plants if I want to help certain butterflies - like the monarch butterflies. You see, if you watch what’s going on, you’ll notice that some flowers are more popular than others.

Monarch on swamp sunflower (Helianthus angustifolius)

Monarchs Across Georgia, after helping to create a fabulous milkweed resource for Georgia, is now working to create native nectar plant lists by county (in Georgia) for the spring and fall migration seasons. They are encouraging ordinary folks like us to use our observational and investigational skills to take note of what nectar plants monarchs use. For example, turtlehead (Chelone glabra) is blooming now but I don’t think monarchs can take nectar from those flowers.

Observational skills are personal observations. Investigational skills require finding observations reported by other people on sites such as iNaturalist. You don’t even need a login to search iNaturalist, just choose “Explore” and enter your search criteria (be sure to use Georgia, USA). Observations are listed by date (most recent first) and you can scroll through results in the time frame that you want (spring or fall) and then check the location. Plants are not usually identified so you might have to figure that out yourself (most of the reports are on non-native plants because that is what people usually have in their garden: zinnia, tithonia, lantana, etc.).

On goldenrod (Solidago petiolaris)
On blazingstar (Liatris pilosa)

Based on my observations in my own yard as well as Georgia reports that I’ve found in iNaturalist and on Georgia Facebook groups, here is my plant list for late summer/early fall native flowers and I’m going to report these for Cherokee, Fulton, Forsyth, and Cobb counties:

Blazingstar (Liatris spp.) – the later blooming species are absolute magnets for southward migrating monarch butterflies. In my area, the only one left is Liatris pilosa, but I think if I had Liatris microcephala that they’d use it too. I rescued the Liatris pilosa from a nearby construction site, but I see Liatris microcephala for sale at plant sales. Other ones like Liatris spicata and Liatris aspera are done by now.

Goldenrod (Solidago spp.) – any species you want to use would be of use to the monarchs (although by now, Solidago odora is mostly finished and Solidago sphacelata might be too). In my area, the following species are blooming: tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima, which is the aggressive one, be warned), gray goldenrod (S. nemoralis), erect goldenrod (S. erecta), showy goldenrod (S. speciosa), wrinkled goldenrod (S. rugosa), woodland goldenrod (S. caesia), and downy goldenrod (S. petiolaris, a personal favorite of mine).

Boneset/Thoroughwort (Eupatorium spp.) – this is one that I hadn’t seen before but several people have reported (with pictures) monarchs on these plants which is fantastic because they are so abundant on roadsides. Boneset (E. perfoliatum) is done for me, but going strong are the thoroughworts: E. serotinum, and E. hyssopifolium are primarily blooming now but earlier flowers of E. album and E. rotundifolium might have been available.

White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) – formerly a Eupatorium, this is blooming nicely in my area now, so I went looking for pictures of Monarch butterflies using it and found plenty!

Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium spp.) – unless Joe Pye weed was pinched back, it is likely that using it in Georgia for a migration nectar source would be too late. Mine are done and everything that I see on roadsides is done by now. They would only help the earliest of any monarchs coming through. People have posted pictures of monarchs using it for nectar but I don’t think Georgians should rely on it.

Blue mistflower (Conoclinium coelestinum) – also formerly a Eupatorium, I have this in abundance so I was thrilled to see several monarchs using it recently (and then several other people posted monarch pictures with it). This is easy to grow and tough as nails; its only downside would be having too much of it if you don’t manage it.

Thistle (Cirsium altissimum and others) – again, this one is on the edge of being available during the heaviest part of the migration. The earlier ones definitely have an opportunity to use this native thistle. This one I found through posts by other people but I was glad to know they use it because this type of flower is perfect for them.

Aster (Symphyotrichum spp.) – there are many pictures and reports that they do love fall native asters like New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae), aromatic aster (S. oblongifolium), late purple aster (S. patens), Georgia aster (S. georgianum), and even some of the small white asters.

On blue mistflower (Conoclinium coelestinum)

If you’d like to participate in this effort, email your Georgia list (with county/counties listed) to Your efforts will help other people learn about the best native plants to use for supporting monarch butterfly nectar needs. Bonus: many other butterflies and bees use these same plants so you’re helping more than monarchs.

On bushy aster (Symphyotrichum dumosum)

Sunday, September 30, 2018

Native Landscape Pyramid

Last week I suggested some good basic ideas for native plants to incorporate into your landscape. You still might be wondering: how many should I get? Well, 100% seems like more than most people would be willing to do – and even I still have a gardenia and a tea olive for sentimental reasons – but several years ago I thought about using this graphic to put some structure into the thought process.

I’m not the first one to have this idea, but I have tried to put some regional consideration into what the components might be. You see, regional does matter. In the southeastern part of the US, native trees are generally an important part of the plant communities and that’s why they should make up a significant portion of our landscape (the lowest layer).  Canopy trees include oaks (Quercus), hickory (Carya), maples (Acer), conifers (Pinus and Tsuga), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), ash (Fraxinus), elm (Ulmus), and tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera); their large size might mean that a small yard could have only 1-2 mature ones yet the plants would still represent a large part of the vegetation.

Amelanchier laevis
Shrubs and small-medium trees fill up the next layer of the pyramid. These include viburnum (Viburnum), hydrangea (Hydrangea), blueberry (Vaccinium), cherry/plum (Prunus), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), dogwood (Cornus), serviceberry (Amelanchier), redbud (Cercis canadensis), hawthorn (Crataegus), azalea (Rhododendron), buckeye (Aesculus) and many others.

Between these two woody layers (canopy trees and shrubs/small trees), your landscape would provide massive amounts of eco-system services in terms of the flowers (pollen/nectar), fruits (both fleshy and seeds), foliage for herbivores and butterflies/moths, as well as shelter for a wide range of animals and insects.

Liatris pilosa with Solidago nemoralis 

With those two layers alone, you could be a real winner with some careful choices (see this link for details on how some plants support more herbivorous insects than others). Let's not stop there. The perennial layer provides some things that woody plants can’t – like milkweed for monarch butterflies! Or perhaps you want some seasonal color after most of the shrubs and trees finish blooming in the spring?

There are many good reasons to have native perennial plants so save some room, but don’t fill up that whole layer. Native grasses and ferns have benefits, both in terms of ecological services and design aesthetics, and deserve some space of their own.

With that third layer filled, we are at the top. If you’re still craving a little something exotic - perhaps those daylilies you love so much or a crape myrtle for that corner by the neighbor’s yard - go right ahead. You can enjoy it all the more knowing that you planned for it.