Sunday, July 26, 2015

Hot Flowers for Hot Days

It's been stinking hot the last few weeks. Steady temps in the mid-90's are only occasionally interrupted by afternoon thunderstorms (sometimes violent ones). Luckily summer flowers are busting out all over and they've got hot hues to rival the hot temperatures.

Here are some of my favorite flowers blooming now in North Georgia and further north. While all of these grow in North Georgia, many of them were also observed during my trip to North Carolina for the recent Cullowhee conference.

First up are the amazing summer lilies: turk's cap lily (Lilium superbum) and Carolina lily (Lilium michauxii). These lilies are similar looking, but there are differences that can help you separate them. Here is a great article that helps explain the differences.

Turk's cap (Lilium superbum)
Strong stem on Lilium superbum

Carolina lily (Lilium michauxii) is a smaller plant

Swamp hibiscus (Hibiscus coccineus)
The native hibiscus are all very showy but none quite as much as the statuesque swamp hibiscus (Hibiscus coccineus). Thick stems are more than 6 feet tall and support large, deeply lobed leaves and flowers that are 5 inches wide.

It's hard to believe that stems this size are not woody plant stems, but the plant does die back to the ground each winter. I leave the stems up all winter in the hope that bees will hibernate in them.

Monarda didyma, Lumpkin County

Another hot red flower is scarlet beebalm (Monarda didyma). On the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina, we found these blooming in moist ditches and open, wet woodlands. They obviously appreciate a moist environment. While they look great alone, when we found them with tall American bellflower (Campanulastrum americanum), they were even more spectacular.

One of my favorite mid-summer flowers is the orangey-red flower of the plumleaf azalea (Rhododendron prunifolium). Native to a limited range in Georgia and Alabama, this species grows very well in gardens too. The hummingbirds love it as do the large Eastern tiger swallowtail butterflies.

Plumleaf azalea (Rhododendron prunifolium)
Sometimes plants have a second flush of blooms. Currently reblooming in my area are coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) and butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa).

Roadside populations of Asclepias tuberosa can be vibrant orange
So if you need some hot flowers for your summer garden, give some of these a try.

Sunday, July 19, 2015

Moths - The Other Butterflies

Moths and butterflies both belong to the Lepidoptera order of insects. They share many of the same characteristics: they start out as eggs on a leaf, develop into caterpillars, transition to a period of quiet transformation and then emerge with wings to procreate and start the cycle again.

Luna moth, does not eat as an adult and only lives a week

Some of the differences include when they feed - butterflies are active during the day while moths are generally active at night or during dawn and dusk. The antenna can be different. Butterflies have simple antennae that end in a swelling or "club."  Moths can have simple antennae (but no swelling at the end) or they might have feather-like ones. In general, butterflies are more brightly colored than moths but there are exceptions on both sides.

Azalea sphinx moth, adult eats nectar
This week is National Moth Week which is a time dedicated to the appreciation of these insects. Between their coloration (usually browns and grays) and their nocturnal habits, we don’t notice them much.  Yet they are important pollinators and a significant part of the local ecosystem.

Couldn't id this one, but I love his expression!

Clymene moth (or Jesus moth) sitting on Eupatorium (host plant)

You can see more moths if you put up a white piece of cloth with a light at night. Most of us just see them hanging out on foliage in the morning or fluttering around our windows at night. I have found brown moth cocoons in the soil sometimes.

Snowberry clearwing moth caterpillar on
native honeysuckle

And of course, we find moth caterpillars on our plants, happily eating their way through what is usually the longest phase of their life.

Having caterpillars on your plants is a good thing. That means you have what it takes to support life in your garden. You probably also have happy birds because they need caterpillars to feed their babies. The birds will eat a few and a few will live on, just the way nature intended.

Southern pink moth

So take a few moments to learn more about moths this week and appreciate them for the roles they play in our ecosystem. Just like butterflies, they help make our little world go round.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Botanical Garden – ABG in Gainesville

I recently visited the Smithgall Woodland Legacy area of the Atlanta Botanical Garden (ABG) in Gainesville, GA. The 5-acre garden just opened in May of this year. The planted areas on both sides of the wide concrete walkway are packed with plants in a design meant to bring color to every season.

The 168-acre site was donated to ABG in 2002 by Lessie Smithgall and her late husband Charles A. Smithgall. In addition to the garden, but not open to the public, are a greenhouse and a nursery that are used by ABG staff for propagation, allowing it to broaden its conservation efforts.

The paths are wide and paved for easy access

My visit on a hot July day was with friends and we arrived at opening time to try and beat the heat. Our leisurely walk from the Visitor Center took us along the Woodland Promenade to the Stream Garden. We passed expertly designed beds of perennials and shrubs laid out underneath some of the remaining mature oaks. I appreciated the use of native perennials and shrubs in some areas.

Benches are found fairly often and we paused halfway through the Stream Garden.  The recirculating stream was beautifully done and blooming blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica) was a cool contrast against the rocks. Just ahead was the Train Garden, a source of delight for all the toddlers that came by.

Purple coneflower and mountain mint plus some spring blooming plants

We stopped again in the nearby Glade Garden and admired the mix of native tall phlox, purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) and mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.). The mountain mint was covered in happy bees. But the temperature was still rising, so we headed back towards the entrance, this time crossing over our previous path to check out the Overlook Garden.

For those folks looking for a more natural experience (or just more time outdoors), there are two unpaved ½ mile trails available: the Sourwood Trail and the Holly Ridge Trail. From the Overlook Garden we could see people walking along those paths.

Swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)

Last stop was the Forest Pond which laps two sides of the Visitor Center. Aquatic plants happily wiggled their roots in the wet edges. It was a beautiful and serene area. A children’s craft area was on the deck nearby.

As we drove out, I noticed extensive plantings of the late-blooming plumleaf azalea (Rhododendron prunifolium) along the drive.

Over the next few years, more features for the garden are planned. Check their website for activities and changes as they grow.

The tall purple flowers of alligator flag (Thalia dealbata) tower over the pond's edge
Plumleaf azalea (Rhododendron prunifolium) blooms in June-July

Sunday, July 5, 2015

Celebrate Your Freedom to Plant Native Flowers

With the sound of fireworks ringing in my head, I am here to celebrate our freedom - our freedom to decide that we can personally make a difference in the local ecosystem around us. We can choose to help our local insects and birds by planting native flowers and plants in our yards and our communities.

The news is full of articles about the decline in bees, monarch butterflies, and birds. These declines can be directly traced back to human behavior. We’re discouraged. Some people feel it is beyond their personal control. In reality, each of us can make a difference, and when enough people choose to change, it makes a huge difference.

Green bee on native Eupatorium
My Facebook news feed recently had an article about a woman in Tennessee that made a difference. She noticed that milkweed was growing in a public space and contacted city officials about not mowing it. They agreed and the concept of protecting pollinators and butterfly host plants grew until it became bigger than just not mowing! They now want to do more to help pollinators.

Monarch chrysalis
Not all of us have an opportunity to do something like that, but we have full control to support native insects in our yard. Native plants have evolved over thousands of years with local insects. 

Some insects have relationships with several native plants (for example, they eat their leaves). Some of them have a relationship with only a single group (or family) of plants (like the monarch butterfly and milkweed).

They can't just switch to a new plant to eat. Very few of the foliage-eating insects have had enough time to develop a similar sustaining relationship with non-native plants (some can eat the leaves of plants that are close relatives to their native hosts).

Wrens love insects

Birds are affected too. Birds eat insects, as adults and as 96% of baby birds. If foliage-eating insects can’t live on non-native plants, then the population of foliage-eating insects declines. If the population of those insects declines, then the bird population declines.

As humans have developed land and replaced native vegetation with non-native ornamental plants, populations of some birds have significantly declined.

So if you’d like to help out the bees, butterflies and birds around you, feel free to ignore the expectation that you use the same non-native plants as your neighbors. Break free of shopping at the big box stores for the same non-native shrubs, trees and perennials that they sell to everyone.

Celebrate your freedom to find the best plants for your all-American landscape! Of course, they can be every bit as beautiful as non-native plants.

P.S. Need help learning more about native plants and where to find them? Get in touch with your local native plant society and pick up a copy of ‘Bringing Nature Home.’

Sunday, June 28, 2015

Water Tumbles Down the Fall Line

On a very late spring day, I visited High Falls State Park in Jackson, GA, Monroe County. The highlight for most folks is the showy falls that are part of the geological change known as the Fall Line and which were enhanced by a dam developed for power generation in 1890. My goal, of course, was to see what native plants could be found in this park around the Towaliga River.

The falls, enhanced by man here.
Prior to the dam being built, the power of the river and a natural 135-foot waterfall were used by local folks to power a grist mill and other industries. Only a few remnants of the grist mill remain; it was mostly torn down after it closed in 1960.

The old powerhouse, completed in 1905 by the Georgia Hydro-Electric Company, resides there in shambles, decorated with graffiti and invasive plants. It was last operated by Georgia Power Company and closed in 1958.

Parts of the old powerhouse
Although it is billed as the largest waterfall in middle Georgia, the waterfall is not the traditional steep drop you might expect.  The dam is 35 feet high and the rest of the falls drops 100 feet in a long slide with large outcrops of rock that create a frothy path. There is a trail alongside the falls area that is south of the bridge. Known as the Falls Trail, it has wooden boardwalk sections with steps that are interspersed with rocky trail.

The natural part of the falls
Although there are native plants along the way, I realize that probably all of this area has been disturbed by man these last 200-300 years due to its value being adjacent to a strong-flowing river. Poison ivy was everywhere (and I’m sure it went home with a lot of kids), including one super healthy stand growing up the old bridge; it was loaded with fruit (which birds love).

On the Falls Trail there was a beautiful blooming yucca (Yucca filamentosa) and a sparkleberry (Vaccinium arboreum) that was covered in tiny white bell blossoms. Across the river was an elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) with large clusters of white flowers. A tall old tree stump was covered in a trio of vines: trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans), morning glory (Ipomoea), and crossvine (Bignonia capreolata). In the middle of the river, 3 crows were arguing with a vulture over something to eat on an outcrop while a great blue heron fished for his lunch.

Vaccinium arboreum
Yucca filamentosa

Justicia americana

Closer to the dam, the flatter area of shoals hosted a number of water loving plants. Elderberry mixed with swamp dogwood (Cornus amomum) while American water-willow (Justicia americana) grew lushly at the water’s edge. 

Unfortunately, non-native elephant-ears were also thickly growing throughout the area. They are probably choking out some native aquatic plants with their dense growth. Occasional floods, like the one in 1994 that knocked out half of an old steel bridge, probably clear out this growth and send the invasive plants further downstream.

Spigelia marilandica

The old powerhouse is further downstream and the woods around it are regenerating as the years go by. I saw ginger (Hexastylis arifolia) and ferns and several stands of vibrant Indian pink (Spigelia marilandica).

Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and lookalike tick-trefoil (Desmodium) twined around it, helping visitors to keep their distance. Inside the fence around the old structure, invasive trees like mimosa and tree of heaven fought for space alongside sycamore (Platanus occidentalis). It looks like crews come in occasionally and cut them down.

State Parks are a valuable resource to Georgia citizens and this 1,050-acre one offers many features to help people enjoy and learn more about the great outdoors. Be sure to notice the plants while you are there and learn more about them. The office is staffed with helpful rangers and lots of resources (I noticed they keep a copy of The Natural Communities of Georgia close at hand).

Sunday, June 21, 2015

Natives Abroad

Last week I returned from a trip to France, having been separated for 2 weeks from my beloved Georgia native plants. Or was I? I knew that early botanists to North America took some of our plants back to Europe, so I had a suspicion that I might see a few of my friends there. I was right!

Sign for Magnolia at Jardin du Luxembourg
The first one I spotted was Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) and that one was the most frequently used Southern plant that I saw throughout France.

As we traipsed about Paris in our touristy journeys, I kept my eyes peeled for other signs of North American natives. London planetree, a sycamore hybrid between the Chinese and the US native species (Platanus  orientalis and P. occidentalis) is used throughout France as a street tree. In urban areas, it is often pruned (or even worse, pollarded) to fit the space. I also spied the occasional Catalpa and locust trees but was not able to confirm that the species used was a North American native.

Wow, planted in 1602!

One black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), however, was conveniently labeled as to species and date of planting. The tree was ailing, but they were trying to prop it up and it was suckering like mad.

The black locust suckering to survive

At several public gardens and the Quai de Branly museum garden, I found our beautiful oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia). It is no surprise to see people appreciating that beautiful southeastern native shrub by using it as an ornamental shrub .

Trumpet creeper in Frejus, France
We traveled down south to the French Riviera where the Bougainvillea vine reigned supreme in masses of hot pink. But in several places the bright orange and red flowers of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) took the stage and it was a beautiful spectacle. French gardens are often heavily manicured and well-maintained so there was no sign of it being out of control.

 Occasionally I did find tendrils of escaped Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) on the edges of gardens. I’m sure they love it for the fall color like we do.

I was hoping to find more perennials in use, but Heuchera and Tiarella were all that I saw in Paris. The Heuchera was being used as part of a large vertical wall at the Branly museum and as an annual at the Luxembourg garden. In the south of France, I found Gaura being used in a seaside planting with agaves.

Heuchera was a big component of a vertical wall at Branley

Heuchera in border at Jardin du Luxembourg
Gaura was a standout plant in this seaside garden

In a wildflower field in the Burgundy region (Bourgogne), I saw Coreopsis and California poppy mixed in a classic combination with European daisies, cornflowers and red poppies. What a beautiful arrangement!

Beautiful meadow near Beaune, France

Driving around on an open-top tour bus in Paris afforded me even more territory to view and I spotted tuliptree (Liriodendron) and sweetgum (Liquidambar), although both of those also have Chinese cousins so I could not be sure.

Finally, I saw Yucca planted at the hotel near the airport and while I am not certain it was the North American species, it sure looked like it! It was certainly fun to see some of my friends in France.

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Botanical Garden - Georgia Perimeter College

While I love to visit plants in the wild, doing that is not always possible - some plants are rare or have habitats that are far from me. Botanical gardens can substitute for that desire to some degree. These gardens create ideal conditions for many plants – sunny, shady, dry and wet – so that the plants there thrive. Beautiful blooms, fruit/seed formation and robust growth all contribute to a spectacular presentation of plants.

The Native Plant Botanical Garden at Georgia Perimeter College (GPC) is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year and is certainly worth a visit to see what’s in bloom in different seasons as well as to take advantage of their walks, talks and plant sales.

I first visited the GPC garden over 12 years ago when I was just learning about native plants. They had a large sunny area, a large woodland setting and were just starting a bog area. They were also propagating and selling a variety of native plants on designated days. The garden was tended by volunteers, and many of them were people who were also involved in the native plant society.

Wild yellow indigo (Baptisia sphaerocarpa)

The woodland area is lush and beautiful
Over the years, the garden has grown and added some new features like a xeric area. Most recently, they completely reworked the main sun beds, changing them from huge rectangles to a curving labyrinth-like path that allows for better access to the individual plants from two sides.

Sunny area lets you get close to plants

Plants are clearly marked with common and Latin names
They’ve also added more walks and talks as well as increased the diversity of plants that they sell. When I was there recently, the number of volunteers tending the gardens was more than ever. Plants were well-labeled, adding to the pleasure of viewing them. I found myself wondering why I hadn’t visited earlier. I picked up a few new plants as well.

Plants are for sale on certain days
Investigate local botanical gardens near you to see what treasures you can find and consider volunteering to help as well. These gardens are beautiful to visit and a great place to learn. For GPC, visit their website to see their schedule for walks, talks and plant sales.